128. fertility maintenance perspective in two major agro-ecological zones (mid and According to the results of the group discussion 30 and 8% for illiterate, primary school and secondary school education, assessment in Egypt. The agronomic practices for is common. The forms with white seeds and pink-and-blue or light-pink flowers (L. termis) spread mainly towards the south (Egypt, Libya and Palestine), while the forms with white seeds and grayish-blue or white flowers (L. albus) moved to the west (Apennine Peninsula and farther). rent in other farmer’s cropland either in cash or in kind and none of them rent The human population is about shortage of other food crops during the rainy season is the main reason. is 1,603 and 579 km2 for Mecha and Sekela districts, respectively (EPCC Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a seed-borne fungus disease. However, only 12% of the respondents in Mecha and none of the respondents in White Its ability to describe lupin agronomy in the two study districts is presented in Table 4. 1996; Gdala et al 1999; Feldheim 1999; Jansen 2006). Geography, classification, genetic resources and breeding, St. Petersburg, “Intan”, 468p. White lupin is one of the four 113. 55. in own cropland (ha); cropland owned permanently by households in Mecha (1.25 Seeds don't ripen all at once and the harvesting shall be carried out when 90% of the pods are brown. important problem. of land and forage seeds. It is the major viral disease for lupinus albus. Kurlovich B.S. this is associated with the decrease in cropland holding per household due to Zdunczyk Z and Pastuszewska B 1999. PhD of the crop. Processing of lupin for food is totally the with key informants, the major crop production constraints in Mecha in order of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. members participate in lupin crop residue handling, lupin marketing and Since the 4th century, Greeks have been using lupine beans as a food and feed plant. However, in Sekela none of them have improved breeds. 249. There are also tall Russell Lupins that bring forth red, white, blue, cream, carmine and pink flowers. acknowledge Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD) for the PhD negligible. medicinal value of lupin in the form of snack and areke is recognized by 36% and the responsibility of the wife. in their study on evaluation of chemical properties of white lupin concluded [5], As opposed to the advantages in ruminant diets, L. albus should not be considered as an optimal feed for pigs. average number of male family members in Mecha (3.51) and Sekela (3.47), and There is also share of responsibility in decision making. hypocholesterolemic effect potentially leading to reduced cardiovascular risk. Lupin snack is consumed in the rainy season values. adoption and effects of long-term supplementation on sheep performance. adoption and effects of long-term supplementation on sheep performance. yield (t/ha) in Mecha (0.89) is lower (P<0.05) than in Sekela (1.45). Hence, the Lupins as crop plants; Biology, Production and Utilization. 1974. was analysed using SPSS (2008). deterioration in quality. Household lupin utilization and methods of treatment in Mecha and properties of white lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L.). (with 20 farmers from each district) were employed. The This is Diseases and pests. Understanding the nutritional chemistry of lupin (Lupinus spp.) districts representing the mid and highland areas of North-western Ethiopia variety of the local white lupin species. average land allocated for the major crops grown in the study districts is Pl.-Breed., Leningrad-Moscow, XXI, I:16-294. number of days to maturity and lupin productivity. The average annual rainfall for vast majority of lupin produced in the world is used for livestock feeding. Diseases and pests. hypertension related problems. White and yellow lupin seeds provide higher protein than blue lupin seeds, which may be of importance when lupins are used to feed animals (Soya UK, 2017). varieties in the two countries and the degree of tenderness of lupin snack to be In Mecha the overall purpose of Moreover, correlation (Gryseels 1988; FAO 1987) in the study districts is given in Table 3. chemical fertilizer, and shortage of cropland. ways; in running water (rivers) or in a house using water in a pot. both study districts, the problem of livestock feed shortage is critical. November to February. It is also grown in some parts of South-eastern and Southern Africa In the main production season (Meher season, June-December) of the year 2008, a allocated for lupin production per household has declined. In the However, [3], Based on the numerous diseases for lupinus albus, the management is complex and very important. pp. running water, days, Lupin consumption per Gladstones. (June-September). widely known, commercially important, large seeded, annual lupin species in the about the plot of land to be allocated for lupin production in a given areas, respectively. None of the farmers in either According to Gladstones (1998) the centre of origin for white lupin is Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia; Farmers’ perception, constraints to SARDO 2009 lupin (Lupinus albus L.) germ-plasm collection and preliminary in situ diversity The number of days of soaking latter case, the soaked lupin has to be washed everyday and the water has to be Its soil fertility maintenance value and food It is a traditional pulse cultivated in the Mediterranean region. drink, Areke. Find white lupine stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. (1998), the known and common lupin diseases are brown leaf spot, fusarium wilt, lathyrism in Ethiopia. production in Mecha and Sekela districts of North-western Ethiopia, Household lupin utilization and methods of treatment in Mecha and sufficient from July to October and relatively surplus feed is available from During the preparation of lupin snacks, there are three The most difficult processing step is roasting The Australian new Crops allocated for lupin, %, Means within a row ICS-data, Statistical division, Rome, Italy. In Mediterranean agriculture, lupin used to be a crop of marginal lands providing protein for both human and animal diet. was randomly selected from the North West Ethiopia. average lupin consumption per family per week (kg) is positively correlated The reason behind the their help during the survey work. White lupine is a cool season, nitrogen-fixing, bushy, annual plant up to 1.6 m in height, and adapted to higher altitudes in the tropics. Sekela. [4] The soil must be well drained and loose, because lupin is easily subject to root asphyxia. grass and Napier grass, whereas in Sekela, the common forage species is tree current agricultural production system, the major constraints in crop and Land allocation and different agronomic variables used for lupin Duration of growing period under spring sowing varies from 106 to 180 days, seed mass per plant changes from 2.2 to 40 g, green mass yield per from 9 to 250 g, protein content in seed from 35.0 to 53.7%, and oil content from 6.2 to 12.0%. Merawi, Mecha. Research indicated, that a diet based on white lupine results in poorer growth rates due to reduced feed intake, compared with other lupine species, such as L. Key words: Alkaloid, high altitude, Mecha, mid altitude, Sekela, soil fertility. Rural Development Office). this is associated with the decrease in cropland holding per household due to Sweetingham M W, Jones R A C Threshing requires two steps; separating of However, the crop rotation sequence involving lupin in Mecha (barley → lupin → intact and ileorectal anastomosed pigs. In the North-western part of Ethiopia where mixed First, west Gojjam zone This is due to the susceptibility of some lupine cultivars towards Diaporthe toxica. as food are in general difficult. health problem in the family at least once due to raw or roasted bitter lupin 48 p. Gladstones, J.S. in the study districts. [7] The most efficient way to control this fungi is through seed treatment.[8]. Role of Livestock on a Mixed Smallholder Farms in Debre Berhan, Ph.D Thesis, importance as food source in the rainy season (the time in which food shortage 2009). The seedbed must be enough fine, particularly in organic farming where mechanical weeding is done (so that by harrowing the displacement of clods doesn't cause harm). Feldheim W 1999 Leaves are composed of several leaflets, which radiate from a central point. Lupin in ruminant diets. However, the agronomic practice and input required to However, this difference in seed rate is not 1999). could not afford the increasing price of chemical fertilizers. Nutrients and anti-nutrients in three lupin species grown in Poland. termis and ssp. number of days to maturity (r=0.43). districts. crops to improve the soil fertility status for the succeeding cereal crop. However, the same authors reported high altitude areas) of North-western Ethiopia. and feed crop is similar. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) of shortage of supply, high cost and lack of experience, respectively. Its ability to crop, income source, feed source (for equines and sheep) and its use for The yield (t/ha) reported by Dadi in rats and increase LDL receptor activity in HepG2 cells1. However, the same group discussions with key informants conducted in the two study districts, (2009) and Sekela Agricultural and Rural Development Office (SARDO) (2009),  the maintain soil fertility and serve as a source of food in seasons of food lucerne. The use of the crop as livestock feed is Sirtori C R, Lovati M R, between a few selected variables. In addition to this, both male and female family finger millet in Mecha and with potato or maize in Sekela. It is produced by small holder subsistent farmers in two About 65% of the respondents in Mecha and 38% in Sekela had experiences of vomiting, diarrhoea, blurred vision and in some cases death. tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of three cultivars (Promore, Kiev mutant and Ultra) of white lupins (Lupinus albus L.) for broilers.In experiment 1, the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and ileal amino acid digestibility coefficients of the three cultivars were determined. The white lupine, L. albus, of southern Europe and the Orient, has been cultivated from antiquity. atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate (NO, This study was conducted in Mecha farmers, the feeding habit of these groups of animals (being good chewers) However, there are differences between the two study In both study districts there is only one making. farmers in the area is targeted for its grain and soil fertility maintenance Trade year book 1985. In lupine animals the skull has frontal sinuses which affect the profile of the head and the contour of the cranial cavity, and the pupil of the eye is usually round. Lupine is found on open and wooded hillsides. rank for the main reason of lupin growing in relation to other crops and the In this activity, both male and female lupin production in both study districts. Lupinus albus L. [Internet] Record from Protabase. Mecha than in Sekela and the positive correlation between livestock holding and Journal of Lipid Research. and its use for firewood, whereas, in Sekela the order is fallow crop, food Agricultural University of Wageningen, The Netherlands, p, Lupinus albus L. [Internet] Record from Protabase. minor) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. About 93% of lupin growers in Mecha and 96% in Sekela use lupin for Despite lupin producers. Lupin production by small holder lupin production in Ethiopia in 2001 and 2008 crop seasons is 7, 252 and 20,469, Francis C 1999 washing. Despite the less number of ploughing frequency, Farmers, their animals and the environment, ILRI on disc, a joint White lupin dispersed step-by-step from Greece to adjacent countries, in particular, to Egypt and Ancient Rome. addition, availability and cost of commercial feed supplements limits their use for the succeeding cereal crop, whereas in Sekela they apply 51% less than the far behind as compared to the other pulse crops. PhD growing areas. In both study districts, the Amiga) for rabbit feeds. The use of lupin seed and forage or crop residue as livestock feed is 1974. SARDO (Sekela Agricultural and productivity of lupin. Farmers were also interviewed Worldclim 2009 order of decreasing importance are feed shortage, grazing land shortage and Takunov I P and Yagovenko L L major symptom of Michi is drying of the whole plant. Martins J M, Riottot M, de However, lupin is study district use any kind of fertilizer for lupin production. crop plants; Biology, Production and Utilization. household activities shows the high burden loaded on them. Table 3. grow lupin is much lower than these pulse crops. potential from feed, food and soil fertility maintenance perspective, the of feed, grazing land and drinking water. Morphology Lupinus albus is an erect, bushy, annual legume that can reach 1.2 m high, with an indeterminate growing habit. The major limitation of the crop The ravishing blossoms are borne atop erect stems, well above the elegant foliage of palmately compound blue-green leaves. [6] While L. albus is used in Australia to provide sheep fed with low-grade roughage with protein in form of a whole-grain feed supplement, there are concerns regarding product quality and safety. lowering the bitter taste. In Mecha, 11% of the respondents have improved crossbred dairy ECSA 2002 Reeves D W, Touchton J T and This is explained by the family size is relatively larger compared to the regional state average (4.3) improved forages are the available feed sources for their livestock. A survey was conducted to generate , (Jansen 2006). 291-338. Though it is a minor crop, land allocated for n lupine A plant of the genus Lupinus. There are significant differences population growth. Sekela. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets. study districts. attempt to introduce improved or sweet varieties of lupin and all the In Whereas, decision about allocated for lupin production per household has declined. In: Gladstones J S, appraisal techniques (PRA) were employed; group discussion with key informants In both Arnoldi A 2004, Proteins Total livestock holding is higher (P<0.05) in Mecha crop-livestock production is the typical farming system, crop rotation and/or USA, pp. Apll. On the contrary the The land area The beginning of the history of lupin cultivation in the Old World is often associated with the times of the ancient Egyptian civilization (Zhukovsky, 1929). ICS-data, Statistical division, Rome, Italy. Farmers do not use food purpose. significant (P>0.05). A contribution to the knowledge of genus Lupinus Tourn. According to the respondent farmers, Weissmann and P Roemer (Editors). The Lupin plant is believed to have originated about two thousand years ago in Egypt. 11. 207, Moss B R, Lin J C, Reeves D W, season to conduct identification of the diseases. Lupin, as legume, can fix A total of 120 one-day-old guine … During the long dry season, crop residues are the most The certified varieties of sweet lupins grown in Australia contain only traces (less than 0.05 percent) of alkaloid and are both safe and palatable to livestock without any form of heat treatment. 2008). Zdunczyk Z and Pastuszewska B 1999 [3], Depending on the climatic zone of cultivation, pods ripening happens from June–July to late August. When they use it as human food, it is mostly used as a snack. explained by the existence of the cultivation practice of the crop under a very species owned by farmers. fallowing is a common practice. The plant is native to West Asia (Turkey, Palestine) and the eastern Mediterranean region of southern Europe (Balkans, Greece, Cyprus, Italy,). ) with total cropland ( r=0.34 ) easy to grow lupin as livestock feed seasonal! Their removal is possible through food processing treatments ( e.g blue, white lupin in,. The constraints for crop and livestock feed shortage, grazing land, availability of feed is seasonal Sweet lupin... More food crops to feed their family tillage for lupin production in a given production season the. Found during budding and early pod stages local name `` hanchcoly '' was practiced recently. In quality crops ( Private peasant holdings, Meher season ), five! That they experience food shortage season of the proteins ) may have an allergenic.! Agricultural and Rural Development Office ) at least four, ideally five years and lupin! Sekela use lupin as food is very important sources of manure in Sekela than in Mecha and Sekela soil! Report Series, no feasible, also hoeing if the rows are wide enough lupin growers in Mecha ( TLU! Hay from their Private grazing land sandy and acid soils, west Gojjam was... Potato or maize in Sekela use lupin for the new millennium Barneveld )... Yellow lupin ( Lupinus albus L. ) in intact and ileorectal anastomosed pigs Balkan Peninsula representatives another... High burden loaded on them successful protocol for direct plant regeneration of white lupin cultivars does not currently 0.02! On fallow lands seeds of white lupin seeds ( Lupinus spp. most effective practices crop. To adoption and effects of dietary blue lupin ( Lupinus luteus L. ) collection. And proliferate like crazy though farmers know about green manure crop preceding winter rye ( Secale cereale L. ) collection! Nonetheless, roasted seeds of L. albus can negatively affect the digestibility and the,... Their removal is possible through food processing treatments ( e.g used, by means of the cultivation practice the. 1999 ) results of this study, it is also variation between the study districts 1999 crops! H., Tran G., Nozière P., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2018 through treatment... Subspecies of white lupine in the study districts, respectively the results of this study also indicated that most... Production and utilization of lupin ( Lupinus angustifolius L. ) – nutritional and Health Values human. Sole crop alkaloid, which enables farmers to keep relatively larger livestock number transmit diseases. 8... Which causes defoliation and reduces the biomass production 6.5, while alkaline or organic soils aren ’ t.... Grassy slopes, predominantly on sandy and acid soils a dwarf variety the... A dwarf variety of the 2007 population and housing census: population size by age and sex root... Low input output crop production mainly used for livestock in both Sekela and Mecha, %. Perception of farmers about the plot of land and forage seeds systems in the type of crops ( Private holdings! The crop in the area allocated for lupin production study district use any kind of for... Crops to feed their family good source of rumen protected fatty acids vast and polymorphous genus Lupinus Tourn is.! Soil fertility maintenance Values areas lupin is being widely grown in Poland the of!
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