They began working at an early age, and before 1921, child exploitation and abuse in Russian factories and industrial areas was common. Although their working hours and conditions were long and difficult, this was the first time that many women experienced independence from the patriarchal village traditions and structures. Peasants and workers alike suffered horrendous living and working conditions … Causes of the revolution March Revolution 1917 November Revolution 1917 Civil Wars 1918-21 Economy 1918-29 Collectivisation of Agriculture Industrialisation Purges N.B. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies.A council of workers called the St. Petersburg Soviet was created in this chaos. Russian Revolution, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union. Between 1918 and 1921, the Bolsheviks targeted anyone who disagreed with the revolution, but between 1920 and 1922 civil war broke out in parts of Russia. Explain. The Russian Civil War (November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia… Read the essential details about the Russian Revolution, February, 1917 (old style Russian calendar) or March, 1917 (new style Russian calendar). It put the working class in power for the first time in history, and promised a world revolution to come which would abolish war, national oppression and exploitation forever. Conditions in Russian factories were well below those enjoyed by industrial workers in Europe. Learn more about the Russian Revolution in this article. The Russian Revolution is the greatest event in human history, because for the first time the working class not only led a revolution, but took power directly into their own hands and proceeded to transform society. When the workers stopped working, so did industry. They worked on average an 11 hour day (10 hours on Saturday). Why did the Provisional Government last for only 8 months How were the Bolsheviks able to seize powe r . Below are a collection of notes to aid in the study of the "Pre-Conditions" period before the Russian Revolution occurred in 1917. Explain the Russian February Revolution 1917. A-level. Kruze, Elʹza Eduardovna: Polozhenie rabochego klassa Rossii v 1900-1914 gg (The Situation of the Working Class in Russia from 1900 to 1914), Leningrad 1976: Nauka. It is not surprising, therefore, that few historians of Russian labor attempt to look exclusively at "social" conditions while treating "politics" as somehow external to the experience of working people. This eventually led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its dissolution in 1991. Some had strong links with the villages from which they came. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers’ quarters. Iiul' 1914 - fevral 1917 gg. Conditions of factory workers in late 19th century Russia (1885) Between 1882 and 1885, Russian officials carried out a series of visits and inspections of industrial factories and worker housing. Please note, however, that they should not be used as a replacement for your own studies of the topic. Workers went on strike demanding a reduction in the working day to eight hours, an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions. The tsar had entered into a system of military alliances with the “democratic republican” government of the French empire and the “constitutional monarchy” of the British empire against the German and Austrian empires. intruded in the lives of Russian workers too directly and persistently to be ignored. By 1917, there were several million workers out of a population of 150 million. Over three-quarters of the Russian population were unhappy with their position in the Empire. During the 1890s and early 1900s, bad living and working conditions, high taxes, and land hunger … The working class and peasants became the first to establish political parties in Russia because the nobility and the wealthy bourgeoisie were politically timid. During the 1920s, people could be sent to labor camps for a variety of reasons. The new emperor quickly made peace with both France and Britain and restored normal relations with Austria. The Russian Revolution took place in 1917 when the peasants and working class people of Russia revolted against the government of Tsar Nicholas II. It inspired workers’ rebellions around the world, and came close to succeeding in its ultimate goal. Russia 1917 41 revision notes 1. HOTS Answer: (i) Grim Condition in the Petrograd: In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were grim. Russia - Working conditions Russia has paid a high social price for its rapid progress in the transition from communism. Workers were a divided group. By early 1917 these conditions had been met in Russia. Essay on The problems and fall of the Tsarist Regime in Russia c 1900-1917 Some of the main causes took a long to develop into revolution, as peasants, industrial workers and the general public were very patient and downtrodden. Under Tsar Nicholas II (reigned 1894–1917), the Russian Empire slowly industrialized repressing opposition in the political center and on the far-left. Russian Revolution: Pre-Conditions Study Notes. The conditions the workers faced were hard, with a working day between 10 and 14 hours. Exploitative working conditions existed with no work breaks or time off. (The Russian Revolution of February 1917, Marc Ferro) Meanwhile the proletariat, drawn from the peasantry and numbering around 10-25 million with their families, was thrown into the most modern conditions in the cities and working in advanced industrial complexes. 431 Review essay The Russian working class, 1905-1917 A discussion of Victoria E. Bonnell, Roots of Rebellion; Workers' Poli-tics and Organizations in St. Petersburg and Moscow, 1900-1914 Russia 1917-41 . How Strong was the Tsarist regime Why did the rule of the Tsar collapse . Witte played an important role in helping to increase the speed of Russia's industrial development and by 1900 there were around 2.3 million industrial workers in Russia. The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. Russia was still extremely patriarchal. Inmates. The pamphlet describes Rickman's impressions of early Bolshevik rule in the Buzutuk department of Samara, and his observations on the Czechoslovak Legion during the Russian Civil War (encountered during his return journey from Siberia to Britain in July 1918). The new communist government created the … Revision Notes(GCSE) 2. For Russian workers, bad times started from the year 1904 as prices of essential goods rose and their real wages declined by 20 per cent. (i) Social conditions: There was no equality among the working class. Russia. Rickman had been working in the Samara area of Russia since autumn 1916 on behalf of the Society of Friends' War Victims' Relief Committee. Never before had workers come close to winning power, though many participated in political life in the Social Democratic parties of Western Europe. The following document is one of several hundred reports later filed by these inspectors. July 1914-February 1917), Moscow 2005: Institut rossiiskoi istorii RAN. Their importance was much greater than their numbers. But workers were not the only ones to rebel in Russia in 1917. Key Stage 3. Most workers made roughly the same income. The act is slandered as undemocratic, when in reality it involved the most far-reaching and revolutionary democracy the world has ever seen. In such conditions the women were treated as the property of men. Russia - Russia - Russia from 1801 to 1917: When Alexander I came to the throne in March 1801, Russia was in a state of hostility with most of Europe, though its armies were not actually fighting; its only ally was its traditional enemy, Turkey. They were led by Vladimir Lenin and a group of revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks. (Socio-political protest of Russian workers in the years of the First World War. Alongside the Russian workers' attempts to create socialism -- not as some abstract far-off utopia in a political party program, but through confronting and changing the concrete reality of their everyday life -- were the activities of socialist parties, supposedly sympathetic to working class aspirations. (Imp) Answer: The social, economic and political conditions in Russia before 1905 was quite backward. In the mid-1880’s the workday was 12–13 hours. Under communism, economic growth was restrained but there was a very low level of inequality. Russian Revolution of 1917 took place in two phases, the February Revolution and the October Revolution.While the February Revolution led to the end of tsarist autocracy in Russia with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II, the October Revolution led by the Bolsheviks resulted in the establishment of the first Marxist state in the world with Vladimir Lenin as its leader. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION of February and October 1917 opened up a new historical epoch, and was greeted with enthusiasm by workers around the world. The Russian proletariat took shape as an all-Russian, international force counterposed to the great-power, chauvinistic division of the Russian state into the privileged Great Russians and the oppressed “foreigners.” The Russian proletariat endured very harsh living and working conditions. The February Revolution in 1917 saw working class people in Russia put themselves at the centre stage of history.They forced out Tsar Nicholas II—and ended … Describe the economic condition of Russia before 1905. The workers made the Russian economy run. GCSE World History. World War I brought even greater freedom – and hardship – as thousands of women were mobilised to fill roles left vacant by men at the front and to support the war effort. 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