Astronomers have identified a new method that could allow the James Webb Space Telescope to detect an exoplanet’s atmosphere in just a few hours of observing time. The most successful method for measuring chemical composition of an exoplanetary atmosphere is the transit spectroscopy method. Unfortunately, the Jupiter-sized exoplanet HD 189733 b orbits too close to its star to be habitable, but the technique could provide valuable information if applied to other habitable candidates. The spectrum is also shown at the typical resolution that can be achieved with transit spectroscopy (red). It will also pass behind its star each orbit, an event called a "secondary eclipse." Very high resolution spectroscopy is used in this method. A moderate-resolution spectrum of the directly imaged exoplanet HR8799c at near-IR wavelengths (∼2.2μm), obtained over 5.5 hours with the OH-Suppressing IR Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) at the Keck II 10m telescope. Eclipse method or Transit method: After the launch of the Kepler telescope the transit method is widely used and more earth like and giant earth like exoplanets were spotted, thus making it enormously successful method in finding exoplanets. ... Spectroscopy is simply the science of measuring the intensity of light at different wavelengths. The radial-velocity method for detecting exoplanets relies on the fact that a star does not remain completely stationary when it is orbited by a planet. 8 A modeled best fit to the spectrum is shown in green. If an exoplanet orbits its host star at an angle nearly perfectly edge on to Earth's line of sight, the planet will transit the star once per orbit. The first results were often problematic. The method involved subtracting the parent star's spectroscopic data from the combined data of star and planet. Credits: L. Hustak and J. Olmsted (STScI) The star moves, ever so slightly, in a small circle or ellipse, responding to the gravitational tug of its smaller companion. Figure 1. (Astronomers call this a “transit”.). methods to study the mass, size, orbit, temperature, and atmosphere of celestial bodies in the search for a habit-able exoplanet. For all of these reasons, Transit Photometry is considered a very robust and reliable method of exoplanet detection. Of the 3,526 extra-solar planets that have been confirmed to … Exoplanet spectroscopy has come a long way from its early days, when practitioners were struggling to extract extremely faint signals from noisy environments. The Radial Velocity Method The radial velocity (Doppler spectroscopy) method is one of the earliest methods of exoplanetary discovery, with scientists using it … This artist’s impression shows a rocky exoplanet with a wispy, cloudy atmosphere orbiting a red dwarf star. 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